Activity by lizatorborg
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: I have been diagnosed with anxiety but really do not want to take medication for it. What does cognitive behavioral therapy involve? How effective is it in treating anxiety?
ANSWER: Although an anxiety disorder can be difficult to manage on your own, anxiety is a highly treatable condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, is an evidence-based psychotherapy that addresses the thoughts and behaviors that contribute to anxiety. Research has shown CBT often can be effective in treating anxiety, even when it is used without medication.
Feeling anxious occasionally is part of life. But an anxiety disorder is different. People with anxiety disorders have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. These feelings often are hard to control and are out of proportion to the actual danger a person is facing. For many people, an anxiety disorder can disrupt daily life and interfere with normal routines. For example, you may have a tendency to think about worst-case scenarios and worry that you will be unable to cope with them. As you do, your mood may become more anxious. You may then try to control your anxiety by engaging in avoidance behaviors, which may include repeatedly asking for reassurance from others that everything will be okay, or staying away from situations that make you anxious. [...]
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: At what age should I be concerned about my child’s weight? My six-year-old son is healthy and gets plenty of exercise, but I feel like he is quite large for his age. He does have a huge appetite and is always saying he’s hungry, and I don’t want to keep food from him when he wants to eat. Are BMI calculators for kids accurate or useful?
ANSWER: There is not one specific age at which weight should become a concern. Instead, keep track of weight consistently at each well-child visit from the time your child is born. If at any time weight begins to rise quickly, a health assessment can identify diet and lifestyle changes that may help. Calculating weight for length or body mass index (BMI) can often be a useful part of that assessment.
In a situation like your son’s, it is a good idea to make an appointment for him to see his primary health care provider to evaluate his weight and review his diet and health history. At that appointment, the doctor will weigh your son and calculate his BMI to see where he falls in the weight range for his age. [...]
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: Are there any new treatment options for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? I am 61 and was diagnosed 18 months ago. Until recently, I have not had any symptoms so have not received treatment for it.
ANSWER: Researchers are currently studying a variety of potential new treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or CLL. Many of them are available now through clinical trials. Depending on your situation, you may be eligible to participate in a clinical trial and receive one of the new therapies.
CLL is a cancer of the blood and the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made, called bone marrow. In particular, this disease affects a group of white blood cells called lymphocytes that help your body fight infection.
CLL usually progresses slowly. As in your situation, many people in the early stages of CLL do not have any symptoms. When symptoms start to develop, they may include enlarged lymph nodes, pain in the upper left abdomen, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss and frequent infections. [...]
ANSWER: Fecal incontinence, or leakage of stool from the rectum, can range from occasional leakage while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control. An estimated 8 percent of the general population and 15 percent of people age 70 and older are affected. Although fecal incontinence is more common in middle-aged and older adults, it isn’t an inevitable part of aging. It’s often the result of another treatable medical issue or can be a warning sign of a more serious problem.
Your rectum and anus are at the end of your large intestine. Normally, the muscles and nerves in and around these two structures sense the presence of waste, allow storage in the rectum, and then move and eliminate stool. Changes in the function of this complex system can interfere with normal stool elimination. [...]
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: Is it true that some children are more susceptible to getting cavities than others? My 11-year-old has never had a cavity, but my 6-year-old already has needed four fillings. What’s the best way to prevent cavities in kids? At what age should they start flossing?
ANSWER: Some people may be more prone to tooth decay than others, even within the same family. To give your children the best protection against cavities, teach them the importance of dental health by showing them how to care for their teeth. That includes daily flossing from a very young age. It is important for parents to have good oral hygiene, too. Make sure you and your children see a dentist regularly.
Tooth decay happens when areas in the hard surface of your teeth become damaged and develop holes, or cavities. If left untreated, the holes get bigger and can eventually lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. A combination of factors can trigger tooth decay, including bacteria in the mouth, teeth not being cleaned well, and eating or drinking lots of sugary foods and beverages. [...]
ANSWER: Studies have shown that if you have rheumatoid arthritis, your risk of developing heart disease is two to three times higher than people who do not have the disorder. Although the exact connection between the two conditions is unclear, a number of factors seem to play into the increased heart disease risk. Regular check-ups, tests to check for heart problems, lifestyle changes and being able to recognize symptoms of heart disease can all help manage the risk.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease that causes swelling. It often affects the small joints in the hands and feet and causes joint tenderness, pain and stiffness. But the disorder can go beyond the joints, too, and that is part of the connection to heart disease.
The inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis may cause changes within the walls of your arteries. That can make the arteries narrow, lowering blood flow and raising blood pressure. Also, plaque can build up in the arteries — a condition called atherosclerosis. [...]
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: I am 40 years old. After having a period that lasted nearly two months, I had tests done that showed a small, hyperechoic lesion within the endometrium. What exactly does this mean? My primary care doctor suggested a hysterectomy as treatment. Are there other ways to treat this condition?
ANSWER: Thank you very much for your important question. This can be a source of much confusion and concern, so I hope I can help you with that.
The endometrium is the layer of cells that make up the lining of your uterus. It is not uncommon for small lesions to form within that lining. When that happens, the lesion may trigger abnormal uterine bleeding similar to the kind you are experiencing. In some cases, lesions in the endometrium can signal a larger problem, such as cancer. But in many situations, they are not cancerous and pose no serious health risks.
The term “hyperechoic” is used to describe how the tissue looks during an ultrasound exam. This is a rather nonspecific term meaning that during the test the tissue reflected back an unusually large number of ultrasound echoes. [...]
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: Is there anything that can be done for dry mouth? I take a medication that lists this as one of the side effects and am having a hard time getting used to it. Before I consider changing medications, I’d like to know if dry mouth can be treated.
ANSWER: Treatment is available for dry mouth. Before you switch to a different medication, there are a number of strategies you can try to reduce this bothersome condition. Because dry mouth puts you at higher risk for dental decay, along with treating your symptoms it is important that you limit the amount of sugar in your diet and take steps to maintain your oral health.
The saliva in your mouth is made in the salivary glands. Those glands are located in front of your ears and near your jaw. Saliva serves a variety of useful purposes. It helps prevent tooth decay by neutralizing acids that bacteria make. It limits bacterial growth in your mouth. Saliva washes away food particles, and enzymes within saliva help with digestion. Saliva also enhances your ability to taste and makes it easier to swallow. [...]