• By Laurel Kelly

Consumer Health: What do you know about testicular cancer?

April 18, 2022
a young white man smiling while running, jogging, exercising outside

April is Testicular Cancer Awareness Month, which makes this a good time to learn about testicular cancer. Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men in the U.S. between the ages of 15 and 35.

Approximately 9,910 new cases of testicular cancer will be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2022, and 460 people will die from the disease, according to the American Cancer Society.

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles, which are inside the scrotum, underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.

Risk factors for testicular cancer include an undescended testicle; abnormal testicle development; a family history of testicular cancer; and age, with those 15 to 35 most commonly affected. Also, testicular cancer is more common in white men than Black men.

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include:

  • A lump or enlargement in either testicle.
  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.
  • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin.
  • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum.
  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum.
  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts.
  • Back pain.

Testicular cancer is treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. If you've been diagnosed with testicular cancer, your treatment will be based on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, and your overall health and preferences. Treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Connect with others talking about living with testicular cancer in the Cancer support group on Mayo Clinic Connect, an online patient community moderated by Mayo Clinic.