• Cardiovascular

    Consumer Health: Heart health and hormone replacement therapy

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Hormone replacement therapy and your heart
Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be prescribed routinely for postmenopausal women to relieve hot flashes and other menopause symptoms. Hormone replacement therapy also was thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. However, research results have been mixed, including one trial that found a small increase in heart disease in postmenopausal women using combined estrogen and progestin hormone therapy. Learn more about the concerns with hormone replacement therapy and cardiac health, and what you can do to minimize your risk.


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Complicated grief
For some people, feelings of loss are debilitating and don't improve — even after time passes. This is known as complicated grief, which is sometimes called persistent complex bereavement disorder. In complicated grief, painful emotions are so long-lasting and severe that you have trouble recovering from the loss and resuming your own life. Learn more about the symptoms and risk factors of complicated grief, and when you need to see your health care provider.

Video: Heartburn, acid reflux, GERD and hiatal hernia
If you've ever experienced heartburn, you know the uncomfortable burning sensation and pain just behind your breastbone. What causes heartburn? And how is it related to acid reflux and hiatal hernia? Watch this short video to better understand heartburn.

Treatment options for stuttering
Stuttering, also called stammering or childhood-onset fluency disorder, is a speech disorder that involves frequent and significant problems with normal fluency and flow of speech. People who stutter know what they want to say but have difficulty saying it. Children and adults who stutter may benefit from treatments, such as speech therapy, using electronic devices to improve speech fluency or cognitive behavioral therapy. Find out more about treatment options for stuttering and which might be right for you or your child.

Understanding chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a complicated disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that can't be explained by any underlying medical condition. The fatigue may worsen with physical or mental activity but doesn't improve with rest. Learn about the symptoms and risk factors of chronic fatigue syndrome.

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