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Fri, Feb 21 10:50am · El trayecto del ensayo clínico

Mayo Clinic Biobank research lab, clinical trial

Algunos de los avances fundamentales de la medicina ocurren cuando los pacientes y los proveedores de atención médica empiezan a hacer preguntas.
Un paciente presenta síntomas nuevos o inusuales y el proveedor de atención médica ve en esa persona algo que nunca antes vio. El proveedor de atención médica consulta con un colega, lee las últimas publicaciones médicas y antes de darse cuenta, ya está emprendiendo el periplo científico que lo llevará a encontrar una respuesta.

Vea: El trayecto del ensayo clínico

Cuando la respuesta implica una nueva intervención médica, sea un fármaco, un dispositivo o un nuevo procedimiento médico, el camino suele componerse de ensayos.
Se hacen análisis para comprobar que la intervención sea segura y eficaz para los pacientes, y se requiere la colaboración de todo un equipo para lograr estos ensayos. Además, otros investigadores, más personal de apoyo y voluntarios para las investigaciones se unen al proveedor de atención médica y al paciente.

En la
investigación clínica, esto se conoce como “ensayo clínico”.

Los ensayos clínicos son parte de los estudios que determinan si una
intervención médica debe pasar, o “trasladarse”, desde el laboratorio al
cuidado habitual del paciente. En cada fase, el equipo debe responder preguntas
distintas.

  • ¿Es segura la intervención?
  • ¿Es eficaz?
  • ¿Es mejor que otras ya existentes?

No todo periplo científico llega al final de este proceso de transformación.
La mayoría de ellos termina en el primer o el segundo ensayo, cuando hay que responder preguntas respecto a su seguridad y eficacia. El periplo continúa incluso cuando un ensayo en particular alcanza el comienzo del final. Durante este proceso, los equipos investigativos suelen descubrir el valioso tesoro de nuevos conocimientos que permiten avanzar la ciencia de la medicina.

Este video le ayudará a entender el sistema de la investigación biomédica, desde el laboratorio hasta el estudio que se realiza con la ayuda de voluntarios y que atraviesa por un proceso de revisión y autorización para su uso.

Si le interesa participar en un ensayo clínico, visite: https://www.mayo.edu/research/clinica….

Para leer los últimos resultados de los estudios, visite: Discovery’s Edge en https://discoverysedge.mayo.edu/ o el blog de Mayo Clinic para el avance de la ciencia en https://advancingthescience.mayo.edu/.

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Información sobre Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic es una organización sin fines de lucro, dedicada a innovar la práctica clínica, la educación y la investigación, así como a ofrecer pericia, compasión y respuestas a todos los que necesitan recobrar la salud. Visite la Red Informativa de Mayo Clinic para leer más noticias sobre Mayo Clinic y Mirada interna de Mayo Clinic para más información sobre Mayo Clinic.

Dec 28, 2019 · Science Saturday: 10 scientific conversation starters for New Year's Eve

Never know what to say at New Year’s Eve parties? The Advancing the Science blog is here to help with this top-10 recap of our most popular medical research stories from 2019.

Everyone loves talking about their health. So keep this list queued up on your phone for quick reference and you’ll never run out of interesting scientific anecdotes. 

#1 Buh-bye, breast cancer

Keith Knutson, Ph.D.

Can breast cancer be prevented with a vaccine? Mayo Clinic immunology researcher Keith Knutson, Ph.D, thinks so. And he thinks it will happen during his lifetime. He also thinks it will be possible to prevent breast cancer from recurring by stimulating the immune system.

Read more.


#2 Zooming in on colon polyps

colonoscopy scope camera view

Gastroenterologists agree that removing a colorectal polyp is an important step in preventing colon cancer. But removing them can be tricky if they’re large and flat. A new minimally invasive approach, called endoscopic mucosal resection, makes it possible to remove large polyps without surgery.

Read more.


#3 The sky’s the limit

Jared Ausnehmer

In the first-ever clinical trial of its kind, Jared Ausnehmer had stem cells from his own bone marrow injected into his heart to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The therapy surpassed all expectations. Two months later, he was cleared to return to normal life and his favorite sport, basketball. 

Read more.


#4 Hospice research aims to understand process of dying, help loved ones with end-of-life care

Man sits with his elderly father's head on his shoulder

Death, ultimately, is inevitable. But for patients at Mayo Clinic Health System in Mankato’s Hospice Program, the process of dying is becoming more bearable for themselves and their families as a result of research studies aimed at understanding more.

“Even though it’s the end of life, it’s incredibly important for patients to have closure and resolution, and feel good about their life’s story and what they’re leaving with other people,” says Greg Kutcher, M.D. “We need to better understand how to do that.”

Read about the rest of the research stories on Advancing the Science.

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Other Mayo Clinic medical research websites:

Nov 1, 2019 · Pretty Parasites With Dr. Pritt, part 5: Bad-news bugs

Parasites can be pretty: pretty cute, pretty awesome and sometimes pretty creepy. This is the final article in a five-part series featuring some of Dr. Bobbi Pritt’s “freaky favorites”, ranked from 1 (not too scary) to 5 (bad-news bugs).

Freaky factor 5/5: A no good, terrible, rotten, very bad disease.

The head of an Anopheles gambiae mosquito, under a magnification of 114X, courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The head of an Anopheles gambiae mosquito, under a magnification of 114X, courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

There’s no getting around it: Malaria is super freaky and dangerous. It’s an illness caused by one of the deadliest parasites in the world, and nearly half of the people on planet Earth are at risk of getting it.

See those pretty purple specks in the picture above? Those are itsy, bitsy malaria parasites. They live inside red blood cells (the larger purple shapes). Malaria is most common in tropical places, although once upon a time it was common in the U.S. as well.

The way malaria passes from mosquitoes to people, and from people back to mosquitoes is complicated and kind of nifty. An uninfected mosquito gets infected by biting a person who has malaria.

Malaria causes shaking, chills, high fever and sweating. In 2016, scientists estimate that 216 million people had malaria and 445,000 people died from it. When traveling to a place where malaria is common, make sure to take preventive medicine before, during and after the trip. And sleep under a bed net to keep mosquitoes away at night. Malaria is deadly if not treated. It can be treated with a number of different medicines.

Related articles:

Bobbi Pritt, M.D., is a pathologist and microbiologist at Mayo Clinic. She loves learning about parasites. You can read her blog, “Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites” and follow @ParasiteGal.

Dr. Bobbi Pritt in a lab, sitting at a microscope, with computer monitors in the background

Oct 31, 2019 · Pretty Parasites With Dr. Pritt, part 4: Love bugs

Parasites can be pretty: pretty cute, pretty awesome and sometimes pretty creepy. This article is part 4 of a five-part series featuring some of Dr. Bobbi Pritt’s “freaky favorites,” ranked from 1 (not too scary) to 5 (bad-news bugs).

Freaky factor 4/5: These worms have a cute love story. But they get into the body through the skin (yikes) and their babies are seriously bad news.

This low-power photomicrograph reveals some of the ultrastructural relationship exhibited by coupled male and female, Schistosoma mansoni parasites. Courtesy Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/ Dr. D.S. Martin

Schistosoma worms, also called “blood flukes,” are some of the biggest huggers in the parasite world. When a male worm meets a female worm, they mate for life. The larger male worm stores the smaller female in a long groove in his body, and the female leaves only to lay her eggs. So romantic.

Schistosoma haematobium egg. Note its spine at the bottom end of this image, which allows it to be identified in the lab.

The World Health Organization says that about 206.4 million people are at risk of infection. Schistosoma worms are most common in tropical places and are not found in the U.S. The worms get into a person’s body through the skin and make their way to blood vessels in the gut or bladder.

Life cycle of flatworms of the genus, Schistosoma.
Courtesy CDC/ Alexander J. da Silva, PhD; Melanie Moser

The worms themselves don’t usually cause any problems. It’s the eggs that can make you sick. There are a lot of them. They can get stuck in the body’s organs and cause irritation and scarring, which can be dangerous.

To find out if a person has a schistosoma infection, a health care provider will look for eggs in urine and stool. An infection can be treated with medicine.

Related posts:

Dr. Bobbi Pritt in a lab, looking through a microscope

Bobbi Pritt, M.D., is a pathologist and microbiologist at Mayo Clinic. She loves learning about parasites. You can read her blog, “Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites” and follow @ParasiteGal.

Oct 30, 2019 · Pretty Parasites With Dr. Pritt, part 3: 'Beaver fever' creature feature

Parasites can be pretty: pretty cute, pretty awesome and sometimes pretty creepy. This article is part three of a five-part series featuring some of Dr. Bobbi Pritt’s “freaky favorites,” ranked from 1 (not too scary) to 5 (bad-news bugs).  

Freaky factor 3/5: Comes from poop and can last a few weeks. But it’s easy to prevent with hand washing and good hygiene.

3D artist rendering of a Giardia parasite
3D artist rendering of a Giardia parasite

Once upon a time, a group of hikers were out in the wilderness, and they decided to drink water from a stream. Little did they know that the water was polluted with beaver poop containing Giardia parasites. The hikers all got diarrhea, and they nicknamed the illness “beaver fever.”

Microscopic view of Giardia parasites
Microscopic view of Giardia parasites

Giardia can live in the guts of many mammals — not just beavers and humans. They’re microscopic and found all over the world. Giardia can survive outside the body, covered in a hard shell, for months. Once inside a person’s body, the shell dissolves and the parasites are released. People usually get Giardia from contaminated food or water, or from person-to-person contact. The good news is it’s easy to prevent:

  • Wash your hands after using the toilet and before and after eating or preparing food.
  • Drink only purified water. No matter how clean that mountain stream looks, don’t drink it without boiling it first.
  • If you travel to a place where you’re not sure the water is safe, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water. Also, don’t use ice, and avoid raw fruits and vegetables.

Graphic illustration depicting the Giardiasis cycle in humans

People with Giardia infections usually get better on their own in a few weeks. But if the symptoms are really severe or if a person is sick for a long time, a health care provider can prescribe medicine to help.

Related articles:

Bobbi Pritt, M.D., is a pathologist and microbiologist at Mayo Clinic. She loves learning about parasites. You can read her blog, “Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites” and follow @ParasiteGal.

Oct 29, 2019 · Pretty Parasites With Dr. Pritt, part 2: Scalp explorers

Parasites can be pretty: pretty cute, pretty awesome and sometimes pretty creepy. This article is part two of a five-part series featuring some of Dr. Bobbi Pritt’s “freaky favorites,” ranked from 1 (not too scary) to 5 (bad-news bugs).

Freaky factor 2/5: Sure, they crawl around on your head sucking your blood, but they’re somewhat easy to get rid of.  Plus, they’re pretty cool to look at.

microscopic view of a head louse
Microscopic view of a head louse

Lice are tiny insects, smaller than a grain of rice and barely visible without a microscope. Unlike most parasites, they live on the outside of the body — usually on people’s heads. They spend their entire lives there, feeding on blood, mating and laying eggs called nits.

microscopic view of lice eggs on a strand of hair
Microscopic view of lice eggs on a strand of hair

Lice are well-adapted for living on our scalps. They have special crablike claws that help them hold onto strands of hair. When lice lay eggs, the nits stick to hair using glue that makes them difficult to remove.

Lice are common worldwide and usually infect children, especially in schools and other crowded places.

People can have good hygiene and still get lice. They’re spread through close personal contact and by sharing belongings, such as hats and combs.

a medical illustration of head lice and the way they attach to human hair

Signs of lice include intense itching or a tickling feeling in your hair. You also may be able to see adult lice or eggs,  although eggs sometimes can look like dandruff, as shown in this image. To get rid of lice, use a medicated shampoo, and carefully comb your hair to remove eggs and adult lice.

Related articles:

Dr. Bobbi Pritt in a lab, sitting at a microscope, with computer monitors in the background

Bobbi Pritt, M.D., is a pathologist and microbiologist at Mayo Clinic. She loves learning about parasites. You can read her blog, “Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites” and follow @ParasiteGal.

Oct 28, 2019 · Pretty Parasites With Dr. Pritt, part 1: The skinny on Ascaris worms

Parasites can be pretty: pretty cute, pretty awesome and sometimes pretty creepy. This article is part one of a five-part series featuring some of Dr. Bobbi Pritt’s “freaky favorites,” ranked from 1 (not too scary) to 5 (bad-news bugs).

Freaky factor 1/5: Easy to treat with medicine and maybe, possibly helpful to humans.

Yep. These are worms. Ascaris lumbricoides is a large parasite that lives in a person’s gut. Sometimes it can grow to be up to 35 centimeters long. These worms are often found in places in the world where sanitation is poor. People usually get infected with these worms when they eat food or drink water that contains a few tiny worm eggs. The eggs are small and can’t be seen without a microscope. The eggs later hatch, and the worms begin to grow inside the body. That’s when a person might start to notice an infection.    

microscopic view, morphology of the Diagnostic Stages of Intestinal Helminths fertilized egg of the parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.
Morphology of the Diagnostic Stages of Intestinal Helminths fertilized egg of the
parasite Ascaris lumbricoides.

Ascaris egg as seen by a microscope, hatching to release an immature worm. Image courtesy of Emily Fernholz, MT(ASCP), Mayo Clinic
Ascaris egg as seen by a microscope, hatching to release an immature worm.
Image courtesy of Emily Fernholz, Mayo Clinic.

Having just one or two worms usually doesn’t cause much trouble. There is some scientific evidence that people who have intestinal worms are less likely to have allergies. However, having lots of worms can block up a person’s gut and can be serious.

The good news is, if you’re a host for these worms – a host is what they call someone who has a parasite— it’s easy to get rid of them. A single dose of an oral medication usually will do the trick.

Related articles:

Dr. Bobbi Pritt in her pathology lab with a microscope

Dr. Bobbi Pritt, is a pathologist and microbiologist at Mayo Clinic. She loves learning about parasites. You can read her blog, “Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites” and follow @ParasiteGal.

Aug 31, 2019 · Science Saturday: Community voices guide use of biobank samples in research

Mayo Clinic supports biobanks—large collections of patient biological samples—near each of its three campuses in Arizona, Florida, and Minnesota, with the goal of supporting research to broaden the understanding of health and disease.  Paired with each biobank, Mayo fields a community advisory board (CAB), whose members are recruited from the local community to help guide the direction and conduct of research.

Community Advisory Board members interact with a Mayo researcher while attending a Mayo Clinic biobank open house in Rochester, Minnesota.

“Each sample in the biobank represents a person from our local community,” says Barry Hall, a member of the Florida CAB. The board’s job is to safeguard those samples: to make sure they’re used in research that honors the donor’s contribution, even though the person who donated their samples may never be able to see or benefit from the results.

Community advisory board members also want to ensure that research using biobank resources aligns with the needs of the community.  In Phoenix, Mayo Clinic collaborates with Mountain Park Health System and Arizona State University to host a CAB that works with the Sangre Por Salud (Spanish for Blood for Health) Biobank. This biobank was created to expand precision medicine research to the Latino community, a population that is underrepresented in biobanks and in research. “Every community is different, and what they need from research is different too,” says Crystal Gonzalez, community advisory board coordinator for Sangre Por Salud.

In addition, community advisory board members ground research in the values of the community, helping investigators understand how their work may be perceived from the outside. “I think researchers are so passionate about curing disease that they sometimes have blinders on,” says Kathryn Hollenhorst, a member of Mayo’s community advisory board in Minnesota. “I feel it is our responsibility to make sure they take the blinders off and be challenged to see things from a lay person’s perspective.”

Read the rest of the article on Advancing the Science blog. ______________________________________________

Other Mayo Clinic medical research websites: