• By Kevin Punsky

Em mais de oito anos de tratamento do câncer de mama HER2-positivo em estágio inicial, o trastuzumabe continua a apresentar benefícios para sobrevida das pacientes

October 27, 2014

Lab image of testingJACKSONVILLE, Flórida, 21 de outubro de 2014 — Depois de acompanhar pacientes de câncer de mama por mais de oito anos, em média, pesquisadores dizem que o acréscimo do trastuzumabe (Herceptin) à quimioterapia melhorou significativamente a sobrevida das pacientes, sem a doença, de mulheres com câncer de mama HER2-positivo em estágio inicial.

Os pesquisadores descobriram que o trastuzumabe melhorou em 37% a sobrevida e 40% em redução de risco de reincidência do câncer, em comparação com as pacientes tratadas apenas com a quimioterapia.

Essa descoberta, publicada no Journal of Clinical Oncology, demonstra a importância do trastuzumabe no tratamento desse tipo de câncer de mama, diz a principal autora do estudo, a médica Edith Perez, vice-diretora geral do Centro de Câncer da Clínica Mayo e diretora do Programa de Genômica Translacional do Câncer de Mama da Clínica Mayo da Florida.

“Esse longo período de acompanhamento de pacientes mostra que, realmente, alteramos o curso natural dessa doença”, diz Edith Perez. “O Herceptin funciona — e funciona por um longo período de tempo. Esse medicamento impactou as vidas de muitas mulheres nos EUA e no mundo”.

O câncer de mama HER2 positivo responde por 15% a 20% dos casos de câncer de mama invasivo. Antes do desenvolvimento do trastuzumabe, as mulheres com câncer de mama em estágio inicial enfrentavam um prognóstico pior do que aquelas com câncer de mama HER2-negativo, incluindo recaídas mais rápidas, maiores incidências de metástase e menor sobrevida de acordo com Edith Perez.

O estudo relata resultados de longo prazo de dois estudos randomizados de fase III, que levaram a FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) a aprovar o uso do Herceptin para o tratamento de câncer de mama HER2-positivo em estágio inicial. Os estudos foram o N9831, liderado pela Aliança dos Grupos de Tratamento do Câncer Norte-Centro North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) Alliance, e o NRG B-31, liderado pelo Projeto Nacional Cirúrgico Adjuvante do Câncer de Mama e do Intestino.

Um grupo de 4.046 pacientes participou dos estudos, que testaram a adição do trastuzumabe à quimioterapia pós-cirúrgica. Todas as pacientes foram tratadas com doxorubicina e ciclofosfamida e, então, o grupo foi dividido em dois, com metade das pacientes sendo tratadas com paclitaxel e trastuzumabe e a outra metade, com paclitaxel apenas.

A melhora geral da sobrevida sem a doença foi observada em todos os subgrupos, que incluíram pacientes mais velhas e mais novas, bem como pacientes com câncer nódulo positivo ou nódulo negativo e câncer estrogênio positivo ou estrogênio negativo.

Os resultados também confirmaram a segurança de longo prazo do trastuzumabe, diz Edith Perez. Por mais de oito anos, não houve aumento na incidência de cânceres secundários e apenas um aumento mínimo de problemas cardíacos, ela diz.

O regime que usa o trastuzumabe é o padrão de tratamento do câncer de mama HER2 positivo em estágio inicial. O trastuzumabe foi testado, pela primeira vez, em câncer de mama HER2 positivo metastático e também apresentou benefícios significativos.

Pesquisadores de institutos de todo o país contribuíram para o estudo.

O estudo foi financiado pelas subvenções dos Institutos Nacionais de Saúde (National Institutes of Health) No. U10-CA25224 e CA129949; pelas subvenções do Projeto Nacional Cirúrgico Adjuvante do Câncer de Mama e do Intestino (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) No. U10-CA12027, U10-CA69651, U10-CA37377 e U10-CA69974; pela Fundação de Pesquisa do Câncer de Mama (Breast Cancer Research Foundation) e pela Genentech (35-03).

Para mais informações sobre tratamento do câncer de mama e outros tipos de câncer na Clínica Mayo de Jacksonville, Flórida, contate o departamento de Serviços Internacionais pelo telefone 1-904-953-7000 ou envie e-mail para intl.mcj@mayo.edu. Para mais informações em português, visite mayoclinic.org/portuguese/.

CONTACTO: Guta Bacelar, 305-598-0125, gbacelar@bellsouth.net

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Sobre a Mayo Clinic
Completando 150 anos de serviços à humanidade em 2014, a Mayo é uma das principais clínicas mundiais, dedicada à atenção médica, pesquisa e educação para pessoas em todas as etapas da vida.  Não tem fins lucrativos. Para mais informações, acesse 150years.mayoclinic.org ou newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/.

Sobre o Centro de Câncer da Clínica Mayo
O Centro de Câncer da Clínica Mayo (Mayo Clinic Cancer Center), uma instituição proeminente, financiada pelo Instituto Nacional do Câncer, conduz pesquisas básicas, clínicas e de ciências da população, traduzindo descobertas em métodos aperfeiçoados de prevenção, diagnóstico, prognóstico e terapia do câncer. Para mais informações sobre estudos clínicos do câncer, telefone para 507-538-7623.

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