Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. In the U.S., about 800,000 strokes occur per year.
Of all strokes, 87% are ischemic. This means they occur when a clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain and stops blood flow. The remaining 13% are hemorrhagic, where a blood vessel ruptures and causes bleeding into brain tissue.
"In the U.S., stroke has dropped to the fifth-leading cause of death, due in part to improved systems of care, including earlier recognition and treatments, which have resulted in overall better outcomes," says Dr. Nycole Joseph, a vascular neurology fellow at Mayo Clinic's Comprehensive Stroke Center in Jacksonville, Florida.
Dr. Joseph adds that stroke survivors who are Black also are more likely to be disabled and have difficulties with daily activities.
Many factors contribute to these unfortunate statistics. Some of these factors are controllable, and others are not. Among the latter are risk factors that include age, gender, race and family history. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder more common among Black people that increases the risk for stroke, notes Dr. Joseph.
"There is still mistrust within the Black community in relation to health care, but it is imperative that Black people are made aware of and become educated about these health risks, as they have the power to adjust their lifestyle and take measures to prevent strokes," says Dr. Joseph.
Risk factors that can be changed include managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. In addition, tobacco use, alcohol use and obesity, which are often prevalent in the Black community, also can affect risk. Obstructive sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for stroke, as is atrial fibrillation, which is an abnormal heart rhythm that can be detected using a rhythm strip provided by an EKG or prolonged-wear heart monitor.
Dr. Joseph says she always advises diverse patients to be proactive about their health and establish care with a primary health specialist.
Dr. Joseph emphasizes that stroke is a medical emergency.
"Statistics show that Black patients are more likely than white patients to delay going to the hospital after onset of stroke symptoms and receive fewer evidence-based treatments for strokes," she says. "To improve outcomes, we must continue to educate people on the signs of stroke and remind them that it is imperative to call 911 and seek medical attention as quickly as possible since certain treatments are time-sensitive. I always tell people to remember the phrase 'time is brain.' The more quickly you recognize the symptoms of stroke, the more quickly a person can be treated and the more lives can be saved."